Validating a theory karl popper
Cardinal Bellarmine gave a famous example of this usage in the warning issued to Galileo in the early 17th century: that he must not treat the motion of the Earth as a reality, but merely as a hypothesis.
In common usage in the 21st century, a hypothesis refers to a provisional idea whose merit requires evaluation.
For proper evaluation, the framer of a hypothesis needs to define specifics in operational terms.
A hypothesis requires more work by the researcher in order to either confirm or disprove it.
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P is the assumption in a (possibly counterfactual) What If question.
Any useful hypothesis will enable predictions by reasoning (including deductive reasoning).The scientific method involves experimentation, to test the ability of some hypothesis to adequately answer the question under investigation.In contrast, unfettered observation is not as likely to raise unexplained issues or open questions in science, as would the formulation of a crucial experiment to test the hypothesis.No finite list of observations exhaustively confirms a theory with universal generalizations; and different types of additional evidence have very different incremental effects on the credibility of the theory. additional observations of the same type have less epistemic weight than an additional unexpected observation.But the essential idea is that an empirical observation is a scientific belief with a relatively direct relationship between the evidence of the senses and the truth conditions of the statement, based on reliable techniques of data collection to which we can attach high rational credibility.
A working hypothesis is a provisionally accepted hypothesis proposed for further research.