“If you bring people together based on superficial things like common interests they may think they’re perfect for each other,” said Grant Langston, chief executive of e Harmony. Long assumed to be loners, at least one octopus is now known to lead a complex love life.And if those offspring also employ the non-traditional mating strategy and themselves manage to father a few offspring, the new mating strategy may become a permanent part of the population's behavioral repertoire.
(Having eight arms is a boon for multi-taskers.) But even a watchful eye and eight strong arms can't guarantee that an aggressive guard won't be cuckolded especially given the sneaky tactics employed by some smaller males ...They excavate a side entrance into the tunnel system guarded by a larger dominant beetle, mate with the female chambered there, and try to slip away undetected.The smallest males of one marine isopod species make up for their small size with heavy investment in sperm.It is vulnerable to cheaters males who don't play by the strategic mate-guarding rules.Mutations that arise in a mate-guarding population and that allow their bearers to side-step the system and father offspring through an alternative strategy will be favored.
Why has sneaking evolved over and over again in distantly related animal clades?